Getting up and running on python-for-android (p4a) is a simple process and should only take you a couple of minutes. We’ll refer to Python for android as p4a in this documentation.
- requirements: For p4a, all your app’s dependencies must be specified
--requirementssimilar to the standard requirements.txt. (Unless you specify them via a setup.py/install_requires) All dependencies will be mapped to “recipes” if any exist, so that many common libraries will just work. See “recipe” below for details.
- distribution: A distribution is the final “build” of your compiled project + requirements, as an Android project assembled by p4a that can be turned directly into an APK. p4a can contain multiple distributions with different sets of requirements.
- build: A build refers to a compiled recipe or distribution.
- bootstrap: A bootstrap is the app backend that will start your application. The default for graphical applications is SDL2. You can also use e.g. the webview for web apps, or service_only/service_library for background services. Different bootstraps have different additional build options.
- recipe: A recipe is a file telling p4a how to install a requirement that isn’t by default fully Android compatible. This is often necessary for Cython or C/C++-using python extensions. p4a has recipes for many common libraries already included, and any dependency you specified will be automatically mapped to its recipe. If a dependency doesn’t work and has no recipe included in p4a, then it may need one to work.
p4a is now available on Pypi, so you can install it using pip:
pip install python-for-android
You can also test the master branch from Github using:
pip install git+https://github.com/kivy/python-for-android.git
p4a has several dependencies that must be installed:
- autoconf (for libffi and other recipes)
- ccache (optional)
- cmake (required for some native code recipes like jpeg’s recipe)
- cython (can be installed via pip)
- libncurses (including 32 bit)
- libtool (for libffi and recipes)
- libssl-dev (for TLS/SSL support on hostpython3 and recipe)
- virtualenv (can be installed via pip)
- zlib (including 32 bit)
On recent versions of Ubuntu and its derivatives you may be able to install most of these with:
sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386 sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install -y build-essential ccache git zlib1g-dev python3 python3-dev libncurses5:i386 libstdc++6:i386 zlib1g:i386 openjdk-8-jdk unzip ant ccache autoconf libtool libssl-dev
On Arch Linux you should be able to run the following to install most of the dependencies (note: this list may not be complete):
sudo pacman -S core/autoconf core/automake core/gcc core/make core/patch core/pkgconf extra/cmake extra/jdk8-openjdk extra/python-pip extra/unzip extra/zip
brew install autoconf automake libtool openssl pkg-config brew tap homebrew/cask-versions brew install --cask homebrew/cask-versions/adoptopenjdk8
Installing Android SDK¶
python-for-android is often picky about the SDK/NDK versions. Pick the recommended ones from below to avoid problems.
Basic SDK install¶
You need to download and unpack the Android SDK and NDK to a directory (let’s say $HOME/Documents/):
For the Android SDK, you can download ‘just the command line
tools’. When you have extracted these you’ll see only a directory
tools, and you will need to run extra commands to install
the SDK packages needed.
For Android NDK, note that modern releases will only work on a 64-bit operating system. The minimal, and recommended, NDK version to use is r25b:
- Go to ndk downloads page
- Windows users should create a virtual machine with an GNU Linux os installed, and then you can follow the described instructions from within your virtual machine.
Platform and build tools¶
First, install an API platform to target. The recommended *target* API level is 27, you can replace it with a different number but keep in mind other API versions are less well-tested and older devices are still supported down to the recommended specified *minimum* API/NDK API level 21:
Second, install the build-tools. You can use
$SDK_DIR/tools/bin/sdkmanager --list to see all the
possibilities, but 28.0.2 is the latest version at the time of writing:
Configure p4a to use your SDK/NDK¶
Then, you can edit your
~/.bashrc or other favorite shell to include new environment
variables necessary for building on android:
# Adjust the paths! export ANDROIDSDK="$HOME/Documents/android-sdk-27" export ANDROIDNDK="$HOME/Documents/android-ndk-r23b" export ANDROIDAPI="27" # Target API version of your application export NDKAPI="21" # Minimum supported API version of your application export ANDROIDNDKVER="r10e" # Version of the NDK you installed
You have the possibility to configure on any command the PATH to the SDK, NDK and Android API using:
--sdk-dir PATHas an equivalent of $ANDROIDSDK
--ndk-dir PATHas an equivalent of $ANDROIDNDK
--android-api VERSIONas an equivalent of $ANDROIDAPI
--ndk-api VERSIONas an equivalent of $NDKAPI
--ndk-version VERSIONas an equivalent of $ANDROIDNDKVER
Build a Kivy or SDL2 application¶
To build your application, you need to specify name, version, a package identifier, the bootstrap you want to use (sdl2 for kivy or sdl2 apps) and the requirements:
p4a apk --private $HOME/code/myapp --package=org.example.myapp --name "My application" --version 0.1 --bootstrap=sdl2 --requirements=python3,kivy
--requirements: you must add all
libraries/dependencies your app needs to run.
--requirements=python3,kivy,vispy. For an SDL2 app,
kivy is not needed, but you need to add any wrappers you might
use (e.g. pysdl2).
This p4a apk … command builds a distribution with python3, kivy, and everything else you specified in the requirements. It will be packaged using a SDL2 bootstrap, and produce an .apk file.
- Python 2 is no longer supported by python-for-android. The last release supporting Python 2 was v2019.10.06.
Build a WebView application¶
To build your application, you need to have a name, version, a package identifier, and explicitly use the webview bootstrap, as well as the requirements:
p4a apk --private $HOME/code/myapp --package=org.example.myapp --name "My WebView Application" --version 0.1 --bootstrap=webview --requirements=flask --port=5000
Please note as with kivy/SDL2, you need to specify all your additional requirements/dependencies.
You can also replace flask with another web framework.
--port=5000 with the port on which your app will serve a
website. The default for Flask is 5000.
Build a Service library archive¶
To build an android archive (.aar), containing an android service , you need a name, version, package identifier, explicitly use the service_library bootstrap, and declare service entry point (See services for more options), as well as the requirements and arch(s):
p4a aar --private $HOME/code/myapp --package=org.example.myapp --name "My library" --version 0.1 --bootstrap=service_library --requirements=python3 --release --service=myservice:service.py --arch=arm64-v8a --arch=armeabi-v7a
You can then call the generated Java entrypoint(s) for your Python service(s) in other apk build frameworks.
Exporting the Android App Bundle (aab) for distributing it on Google Play¶
Starting from August 2021 for new apps and from November 2021 for updates to existings apps, Google Play Console will require the Android App Bundle instead of the long lived apk.
python-for-android handles by itself the needed work to accomplish the new requirements:
p4a aab --private $HOME/code/myapp --package=org.example.myapp --name="My App" --version 0.1 --bootstrap=sdl2 --requirements=python3,kivy --arch=arm64-v8a --arch=armeabi-v7a --release
This p4a aab … command builds a distribution with python3, kivy, and everything else you specified in the requirements. It will be packaged using a SDL2 bootstrap, and produce an .aab file that contains binaries for both armeabi-v7a and arm64-v8a ABIs.
The Android App Bundle, is supposed to be used for distributing your app. If you need to test it locally, on your device, you can use bundletool <https://developer.android.com/studio/command-line/bundletool>
You can pass other command line arguments to control app behaviours such as orientation, wakelock and app permissions. See Bootstrap options.
If anything goes wrong and you want to clean the downloads and builds to retry everything, run:
If you just want to clean the builds to avoid redownloading dependencies, run:
p4a clean_builds && p4a clean_dists
You can see the list of the available recipes with:
If you are contributing to p4a and want to test a recipes again, you need to clean the build and rebuild your distribution:
p4a clean_recipe_build RECIPENAME p4a clean_dists # then rebuild your distribution
You can write “private” recipes for your application, just create a
p4a-recipes folder in your build directory, and place a recipe in
it (edit the
mkdir -p p4a-recipes/myrecipe touch p4a-recipes/myrecipe/__init__.py
Every time you start a new project, python-for-android will internally create a new distribution (an Android build project including Python and your other dependencies compiled for Android), according to the requirements you added on the command line. You can force the reuse of an existing distribution by adding:
p4a apk --dist_name=myproject ...
This will ensure your distribution will always be built in the same directory, and avoids using more disk space every time you adjust a requirement.
You can list the available distributions:
And clean all of them:
python-for-android checks in the current directory for a configuration
.p4a. If found, it adds all the lines as options to the
command line. For example, you can add the options you would always
include such as:
--dist_name my_example --android_api 27 --requirements kivy,openssl
Overriding recipes sources¶
You can override the source of any recipe using the
$P4A_recipename_DIR environment variable. For instance, to test
your own Kivy branch you might set:
The specified directory will be copied into python-for-android instead of downloading from the normal url specified in the recipe.
setup.py file (experimental)¶
If your application is also packaged for desktop using setup.py,
you may want to use your setup.py instead of the
--requirements option to avoid specifying things twice.
For that purpose, check out distutils/setuptools integration